Profiling the Serum Albumin Cys34 Adductome of Solid Fuel Users in Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China
Xuanwei and Fuyuan counties in China have the highest lung cancer rates in the world due to household air pollution from combustion of smoky coal for cooking and heating. To discover potential biomarkers of indoor combustion products, we profiled adducts at the Cys34 locus of human serum albumin (HSA) in 29 nonsmoking Xuanwei and Fuyuan females who used smoky coal, smokeless coal or wood, and 10 local controls who used electricity or gas fuel. Our untargeted ‘adductomics’ method detected 50 tryptic peptides of HSA, containing Cys34 and prominent post-translational modifications. Putative adducts included Cys34 oxidation products, mixed disulfides, rearrangements and truncations. The most significant differences in adduct levels across fuel types were observed for S-glutathione (S-GSH) and S-γ-glutamylcysteine (S-γ-GluCys), both of which were present at lower levels in subjects exposed to combustion products than in controls. After adjustment for age and personal measurements of airborne benzo(a)pyrene, the largest reductions in levels of S-GSH and S-γ-GluCys relative to controls were observed for users of smoky coal, compared to users of smokeless coal and wood. These results point to possible depletion of GSH, an essential antioxidant, and its precursor γ-GluCys in nonsmoking females exposed to indoor-combustion products in Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China.